**Electrical Capacitance of A Conductor-**

Before you go through this article, make sure that you have gone through the previous article on **Electrical Capacitance of a Conductor**.

**We have learnt-**

- The electrical capacitance of a conductor is a measure of its
**ability to store electric charge or energy**. - It
**depends on the shape and size**of the conductor. - Its
**SI unit is farad (F)**.

**If charge Q raises the potential of a conductor by V, then its electrical capacitance is given by the formula-**

**In this article, we will learn about the capacitor.**

**Capacitor-**

A capacitor is an arrangement of two conductors of any shape separated by a non-conducting medium (insulator or dielectric) such that it can store electric charge. |

It is also called as a **condenser**.

**Charging Of Capacitor-**

**When a battery is connected across the two uncharged conductors of the capacitor,**

- Electrons from one conductor starts to get transferred to the other conductor.
- Equal and opposite charges start appearing on the two conductors.
- The potential difference between the two conductors increases.
- Electric field comes into existence between the two conductors.
- The electric field increases with the charge on capacitor.

**This process is called as charging of capacitor.**

**At any instant, the charge on the capacitor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the capacitor i.e.**

**It may be noted that-**

- Charge on Capacitor = magnitude of charge on either conductor
- Potential difference across capacitor = Potential difference between the two conductors

**We write-**

where C is a constant of proportionality called as **Capacitance of Capacitor**.

**Capacitance Of Capacitor-**

**From the relation Q = CV, the capacitance of capacitor is given by-**

**Thus, the capacitance of a capacitor is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of charge Q on the capacitor to the potential difference across the capacitor.**

**Steady State-**

A capacitor is said to be in steady state when it is fully charged i.e. the charging process has completed. |

The charging process completes when the potential difference across the capacitor becomes equal to the potential difference across the battery.

**It may be noted that in steady state,**

**Potential difference across the capacitor = potential difference across the battery****Charge on capacitor becomes constant and given by Q = CV where V is the voltage applied.**

**Pictorial Symbols-**

**A capacitor of fixed capacitance is represented by the symbol-**

**A capacitor of variable capacitance is represented by the symbol-**

**Types of Capacitors-**

**Generally, capacitors are named on the basis of the shape of the conductors used i.e.**

- Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Spherical Capacitor
- Cylindrical Capacitor

**Uses of Capacitor-**

**Capacitors are widely used in-**

- electrical appliances such as fans, motors, voltage correctors etc.
- electronic instruments, appliances, radio sets, television sets, computers etc.

**Read the next article on-**

**Get more notes & other study material of the Chapter** **Electrostatic Potential & Capacitance**.